The timing of planting seeds and seedlings of vegetables, the choice of fertilizing for vegetables, the right compost
About common mistakes gardeners
"Live and learn!"
Alas, not only beginners, but also experienced gardeners often make mistakes that lead to irreparable consequences. Let's try to consider the most common violations of agricultural practices leading to adverse consequences.
It is not surprising that many people want to sow seeds or plant seedlings of plants as early as possible. And this is absolutely correct, because the growing season, especially in our Urals, is extremely limited, and with the right approach, if you manage to carry out early sowing and planting, you have a great chance of getting an early and larger harvest.
For example, cucumbers in an ordinary unheated greenhouse can please you with fresh fruits already around June 10-15. At the same time, you can have on the table and zucchini, and beets, and in early July - and fresh tomatoes, carrots, etc.
But there is one "but" here. If you do not create the appropriate conditions for the plants, they will all die from frost, or get sick, and then die or go into color ...
Therefore, the following rules should be observed:
- with the early planting of thermophilic crops in greenhouses and hotbeds, it is necessary, at least, to form warm ridges in them on biofuel and to organize inside additional temporary shelters from a covering material or film; water the plants only with specially heated water, and also take all measures against diseases (watering with biological products, adding trichodermine to the soil, etc.); it must be remembered that growth stimulants cannot be dispensed with at this moment, because plants, most likely, will sorely lack sun and heat most of the time;
- with early sowing of zucchini and pumpkins, you will first have to grow their seedlings in greenhouses on biofuel, and only then plant them in a permanent place, but also on a heated ridge;
- when planting potatoes early, one must not forget that only well-sprouted potatoes can be planted in insufficiently heated soil, otherwise they may not germinate in cold soil; in addition, it is imperative to insulate the landings made by covering their entire area with film, covering material or hay; when shoots appear, you need to immediately huddle them right with the tops, because even if at this moment the frosts pass, the nights are still very cold, and the potatoes will not like them at all;
- with early sowing of carrots, autumn preparation of the ridges is necessary, because during spring digging, there can be no question of any early carrot sowing - the ridges simply cannot be dug up; it is imperative in this case to close the ridges with a film or covering material, otherwise the plants will develop extremely slowly, and a race in time will not work;
- early sowing of beets is possible only in greenhouses or greenhouses with pre-soaked seeds, followed by planting seedlings in a permanent place in the ground, and here, too, plant protection with a covering material will be required, because frosts are normal in our country until mid-June; if the beets are not covered, then under the influence of low temperatures, although they will not freeze, they will go into color;
- early planting of onion sets is also preferable - this allows you to get an earlier harvest and have time to harvest it before long rains, which ruin a significant amount of grown onions in our country; however, this is possible only with the obligatory covering of the ridges with a film, and then with a covering material, otherwise the onion, being exposed to low temperatures, will go into the arrow and there will be no harvest.
As practice shows, many people apply fertilizers without taking into account the weather conditions and soil characteristics in a particular area. Yes, this is understandable, because for decades, all manuals for gardeners simply indicated that cabbage, say, needs to be fed so many times and in such and such an assortment, etc. Moreover, these recommendations were absolutely the same for the inhabitants of Ukraine with its hot climate and black soil, and for the Urals with a complete absence of summer and podzol instead of soil. And it is not uncommon to hear from novice gardeners a statement that, for example, cucumbers can grow without manure on ordinary soil (they say, this is how it is written in the book) - they can, but not with us, here you still need to figure out what the author meant by ordinary soil, maybe the land of the Belgorod or Tambov regions? As a result, the gardener who has trusted the printed word will face continuous disappointments - and nothing more.
In general, I am leading the conversation to the fact that when making top dressing, you should take into account many different factors, and not just some fertilization schemes. At the same time, I do not want to say that it is not necessary to be guided by such schemes - of course, it is necessary, because there must be at least some kind of reference point until solid experience appears. But all these schemes need to be adjusted taking into account the weather and soil characteristics.
Therefore, we will focus on several important rules when carrying out dressings.
- It should be remembered that in cold weather (at temperatures below 10 ° C), liquid fertilizing is completely useless (the roots of plants do not work well), nutrients are poorly absorbed. Dry dressings can be carried out in order to save time later - they will not bring any harm or benefit, because fertilizers will simply lie there waiting for watering and warming.
- When carrying out liquid dressings, a solution may get on the leaves of plants - this will lead to burns, therefore, if this happens, you should immediately rinse the solution with clean water. In general, when carrying out root dressings, the plants should be fed with a fertilizer solution carefully at the root.
- Top dressing with liquid fertilizers on dry soil leads to root burns, therefore, you should first moisten the soil with water, and only then feed it.
- In cold and rainy weather, the metabolism of plants is disturbed and the consumption of potash fertilizers increases. This point should be taken into account, and the dose of potassium during such periods should be increased accordingly.
- In rainy weather, on our podzolic soil, there is a strong leaching of fertilizers, so you should never apply large doses of mineral fertilizers at one time - it is better to feed a little. Potash fertilizers are washed out especially strongly, nitrogen fertilizers to a lesser extent. Therefore, the doses of potash and nitrogen fertilizers applied in our region are often higher in comparison with phosphorus fertilizers, which do not undergo such a strong leaching.
- It is necessary to very carefully observe the state of the leaves of plants, which can suggest which elements the plants are lacking; moreover, you need to pay attention to this regularly, tk. it is much easier to help the plant at the initial moment. If you notice a shortage of some kind of nutrient, then it is most effective to carry out a complex feeding: with a more concentrated solution under the root and a weak one - over the leaves. If by external signs you find it difficult to determine what the plant is missing, then most likely we are talking about some trace elements, then, without thinking too much, just carry out foliar feeding with a preparation with a complex of trace elements.
Nitrogen. With a lack of nitrogen, the lower leaves of plants turn yellow (nitrogen-poor plants transfer nitrogen from the old lower leaves upward, to the younger ones, and as a result, the lower leaves wither and turn yellow) and fall off, and the total vegetative mass is clearly insufficient. An excess of nitrogen leads to the development of too fleshy deciduous part crops, which, in turn, delays the formation of flowers (root crops or tubers) and reduces yields; in this case, the plants must be fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
Phosphorus. With a lack of phosphorus, the leaves turn dark green or bluish, with a red tint, they are drying up and almost black. Flowering and fruiting are delayed. Plants complete growth quickly. The harvest is minimal.
Potassium. With a deficiency of potassium, the leaves of plants darken very much, and then their edges "burn" from the middle to the top of the plant. If the lack of potassium is not compensated for, then the leaves, including those that are just beginning to appear, turn brown and deform, dry up and fall off. The yield falls dramatically.
- You can not abuse any fertilizers, and especially nitrogen fertilizers, because they contribute to the accumulation of nitrates, reduce the keeping quality of vegetables and increase their susceptibility to disease. In addition, an overdose of top dressing (the introduction of more fertilizers than according to the instructions) can lead to a chemical burn of the roots and even to the death of plants.
- Liquid dressings are absorbed much faster and, as a result, are more effective than dressings in the form of dry mixtures. However, all this is provided that they are entered in a timely manner. Liquid top dressing should be used only during the period of active plant growth - in late spring and summer. If you add it earlier, then the bulk of the nutrients will be washed out of the soil, if later, then the effect will be too insignificant.
- Phosphorus fertilizers applied superficially are quite firmly bound by the soil, and, often, cannot be fully utilized by the root system. Therefore, they are not scattered over the surface of the soil, but brought in for digging or in the holes. It is possible in top dressing, but in this case, care must be taken that the phosphorus fertilizers are well embedded in the soil.
- Diseased plants should be fed with great care. Most often it is completely useless (and, sometimes, even harmful), because diseased plants will not be able to assimilate nutrients. It is better to wait with feeding and treat the plants with growth and root stimulants, immunomodulators and drugs for diseases. And only after you make sure that the plants "come to life", you can apply a weak feeding.
Compost to compost strife
You cannot grow vegetables without a solid humus layer in the garden, and therefore it is quite understandable that gardeners want to send all organic residues to compost. An exception is plant residues contaminated with pathogens - they should not get into the compost, because in this way, you will scatter pathogens throughout the site. Of course, nothing terrible will happen if you bury the potato tops affected by late blight and plant cabbage on top of the next year, which is not affected by this disease. But then the land will move according to the crop rotation, for example, carrots, then onions, and sooner or later, but the potatoes will return to it, and the disease will take its toll.
Therefore, diseased plants must be removed during the entire growing season and burned.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Proper cultivation and care of eggplants outdoors
In the wild, the vegetable grew many centuries ago, but appeared in Russia only in the 17-18 centuries. The usefulness of eggplant was not immediately appreciated, but alertness soon gave way to great popularity. And not the least role in this was played by the product's ability to lower cholesterol levels, improve heart function and regulate water balance in the body. For successful cultivation in the open field, you must follow the rules of care - you need to love and care for the eggplant, grow seedlings under necessary conditions, add top dressing or cover it in frost.
Conditions for keeping crops of tomatoes
Sown tomato seeds suffer from waterlogging. Water clogs the pores of the soil and displaces air from them, which is necessary for tomatoes for friendly shoots. It often happens that already germinated tomato seeds, planted in moist soil, rot in it.
Containers with sown tomato seeds should be kept in a warm room with a temperature of +22 ... + 28 degrees Celsius.
Before the emergence of seedlings, tomato crops should be covered with cellophane, which prevents the temperature of the soil from dropping due to moisture evaporation.
Tomato seeds need more warmth than light for germination.
It is not allowed to place boxes with not yet sprouted tomato seeds on the windowsill. After all, usually the temperature on our windowsills during the planting period is half as low as in the rest of the room. Therefore, first you need to wait for the tomato shoots, and only then transfer the seedling boxes to a light windowsill.
Observe the simple sowing rules and create favorable conditions for keeping, then the sprouts of tomatoes will not be long in coming.
Dmitry Gusev (village Yurovo, Ramenskiy district, Moscow region)
Weekly Free Digest of Gardenia.ru Site
Every week, for 10 years, for our 100,000 subscribers, an excellent selection of relevant materials about flowers and garden, as well as other useful information.
How and when to plant cucumber seeds outdoors
Almost every gardener and summer resident is engaged in the cultivation of cucumbers on their site. And this is not surprising, the culture is very tasty, you can eat it fresh or make preparations for the winter. But in order to get a rich harvest, it is important not only to take care of the plant, but also to plant the seeds correctly in open ground or in a greenhouse.
When to plant cucumbers in open ground and a greenhouse
When to plant cucumbers in open ground in spring in 2019, in what month? It is possible to sow the seeds of this crop only after the soil temperature will be stably above 12 degrees Celsius, and the air temperature - more than 15 degrees. At the same time, the threat of recurrent frosts must pass. Therefore, when choosing a sowing time, you need to focus on weather and temperature conditions.
Due to different weather and climatic conditions in different regions of Russia, different dates for sowing cucumber seeds in open ground in spring:
- In the South (Krasnodar Territory (Kuban), North Caucasus) - can be planted in the second half of April.
- In the middle lane (Moscow region) - it is better to plant a culture in the second half of May (middle and end of the month).
- In Siberia, in the Urals, in the Leningrad region (and in general in the North-West of Russia) - the optimal sowing time is in late May or even early June.
Note! You can plant a cucumber in a polycarbonate greenhouse 7-14 days earlier than in open ground.
If you want to know a more accurate and good time for the procedure, then you can plant a culture on Lunar calendar 2019:
- Auspicious days:
- in April - 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30
- in May - 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- in June - 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20.
- Unfavorable days for sowing:
- in April - 5, 19
- in May - 5, 19
- in June - 3, 4, 17.
Important! It is very important to comply with the recommended dates for spring planting of cucumbers in open ground. If you plant a crop too early, the seeds will easily rot in wet and cold conditions. And with a late procedure, the development of plants will occur in too hot weather, because of which they may slow down in growth or begin to dry out.
How to properly plant cucumbers in open ground and a greenhouse
It is important not only to properly plant cucumber seeds in open ground in the spring, but to properly prepare for the event. Preparatory activities include seed treatment, selection and preparation of soil, beds. Consider the rules, methods and features of activities, as well as step-by-step instructions for sowing seeds.
Choosing a landing site
When choosing a place for a garden bed on a site, you must definitely pay attention to the rules of crop rotation (that is, the alternation of crops in the garden). After which crops can cucumbers be planted? The best predecessors for this culture are: peppers, tomatoes, cabbage, onions, garlic.
But planting a vegetable crop after melons and pumpkin crops (cucumbers themselves, watermelons, melons, pumpkins, zucchini, squash) is highly discouraged!
By the way! You can plant this crop next to tomatoes, cabbage, turnips, corn, legumes, radishes.
The place for planting cucumber seeds in an open field or greenhouse should be extremely warm and sunny. Without adequate lighting and even with light shading, the quality and quantity of the crop can be significantly reduced. Therefore, before sowing, you need to choose the most suitable site.
Selection and preparation of soil and beds
It is important to choose not only a suitable place for the garden, but also the soil. The soil for planting cucumbers in a greenhouse or open ground should be fertile, light, loose, and have neutral acidity.... It is on such land that the cultivation of crops will be the most productive, the harvest will be large and tasty.
Advice! It is advisable to prepare the soil for the spring planting of cucumbers during the season, that is, in the fall. But nothing terrible will happen if you prepare in the spring - 4 or at least 2 weeks before sowing.
In order to properly prepare the land for sowing seeds, you should first dig up a place under the bed on a shovel bayonet with the introduction of humus or compost (1 bucket per square meter). Such organic fertilizers will improve the structure of the soil, make it lighter, friable, not to mention the nutritional value that a crop needs for a good harvest!
By the way! You can fertilize the soil just before planting cucumbers. To do this, you need to make holes about 30 centimeters deep, and then fill them with a mixture of garden soil, compost or humus (in a 1: 1 ratio).
Also useful mineral fertilization before planting cucumbers in open ground or a greenhouse. You can immediately use a complex preparation, for example, Nitroammofosku, which already contains the necessary elements - nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. But you can also fertilize the soil in the future bed with different preparations separately, for example, ammonium nitrate (nitrogen), potassium sulfate (potassium) and superphosphate (phosphorus), while the nitrogen preparation is better to apply in the spring, but potassium and phosphorus - when preparing the beds in the fall ... Any fertilizer must be used according to the instructions on the package!
Advice! It is not recommended to get carried away with fertilizers (especially mineral ones), since their abuse will do more harm than good, and may even destroy the cucumbers.
The seeds of this crop can be planted without any pre-treatment, that is, dry. However, preparing seeds before planting in an open field or greenhouse will help to achieve better germination, reduce the number of non-germinated seeds, and sowing treated seeds allows you to see earlier and stronger shoots.
You can prepare cucumber seeds for planting in the following ways:
- First of all, it is recommended to calibrate - remove samples that have damage, stains, too small sizes
- It is extremely useful to conduct disinfection, which will eliminate pathogens from the surface of the seed. For example, you can soak the seeds in a solution of the biofungicide Fitosporin-M (according to the instructions) or process them in a dark solution of potassium permanganate (30 minutes, and then rinse), or in Chlorhexidine (hold for half an hour, and then rinse).
- If you are sure of the quality of your seeds, then instead of disinfection, soak in growth stimulant solution, for example, Epin-Extra, Zircon, Energen (according to the instructions).
- After disinfection or soaking in a growth stimulator, you can germinate seeds. Germination is a very effective way of preparing planting material. You need to put them on a damp cotton cloth or gauze, wrap them on both sides, and place the material in a bag. Every day you need to check the moisture level, not allowing it to dry out. When they germinate, you need to immediately plant them in the ground.
Important! There is no need to process pelleted, granulated cucumber seeds, they are already completely ready for sowing!
The classic way of planting cucumbers
To plant cucumber seeds in open ground or a polycarbonate greenhouse according to the classical scheme, step-by-step instructions will help:
- Prepare the garden bed as described above.
- Sow the seeds to a depth of 2-3 centimeters, the distance between them is 20-40 centimeters, and the distance between the rows is 60-100 centimeters. In one hole, you can immediately put 2-3 seeds, and then pinch off the weakest shoots.
- Sprinkle soil over the seeds.
- Water gently.
Advice! In case some seeds do not sprout, it is better to sow the cucumbers at a distance of 5-10 centimeters, and then thin out, remove weak plants. And the method described above is more relevant for pre-germinated seeds or expensive and high-quality seed.
Other sowing methods
Sowing on black agrofibre
Planting cucumbers on black agrofibre (spunbond) is a very practical way of sowing crops in open ground or in a greenhouse. This technology has significant advantages: in hot weather, the material lowers the temperature in the soil by a couple of degrees, retains moisture, and prevents the growth of weeds. Thus, when caring for a plant, you do not need to worry about mulching, weeding.
Planting seeds on agrofibre follows the standard scheme, which is described above. Only now you need to first lay the agrofiber, fix it, and then make cuts at the recommended distance.
By the way! Strawberries can also be planted on black agrofibre.
Many gardeners are very fond of an interesting way of sowing cucumber seeds - in a barrel. The method has many advantages: it allows you to significantly save space on the site, it is much easier to care for a vegetable crop, the plants receive uniform lighting. The only negative is that there must be a barrel on your site, and preliminary preparation is also required. You need to prepare the barrel and its contents in the fall or at least early spring.
Step-by-step instructions for planting cucumbers in a barrel:
- The first step is to prepare a barrel (iron, wood, plastic). The optimal container size is 200 liters. There must be holes at the bottom.
- A drainage layer with a thickness of about 10 centimeters must be laid at the bottom of the container. You can use pebbles, broken brick, expanded clay.
- Half of the barrel (more precisely, a little less than half) is filled with the contents of the compost heap (grass, branches, casting, residues from vegetables, fruits). Organic elements must be sealed in a container.
- Then you should put in a barrel of clay or loamy soil, a layer of 30 centimeters.
- On top you need to put manure or green residues (i.e. mowed grass), the layer thickness is 20 centimeters.
- Then garden soil and compost (in equal parts) are poured on top, mix well. At the same time, a small distance should remain to the edges of the barrel.
- It is also recommended to put tablets of the drug "Glyocladin" in the ground according to the instructions for the prevention of root rot.
- In the middle of the barrel, you need to put a 5-liter plastic bottle without a lid with the bottom cut off (bottom up). The edges of the bottle should be slightly below the edges of the container, but above the ground. A five liter bottle will be needed for watering and applying liquid fertilizers.
- Water abundantly.
- You need to plant cucumber seeds in a barrel to a depth of 2-3 centimeters at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other.
- And then, after sowing, it is worth covering the barrel with agrofibre until the first shoots appear.
Sowing in bags
The technology of sowing and growing cucumbers in bags with soil is very similar to the previous method, in a barrel. For this option, you can use thick plastic bags or bags of flour, sugar. The method allows you to save space on the site, but with subsequent care you need to fuss.
Scheme of the correct planting of cucumbers in bags:
- Drainage holes must be made at the bottom of the material to be used.
- Put rotted sawdust, hay or straw there (layer 10-15 cm).
- Fill the bag with soil one third. The optimal composition of the soil mixture is two buckets of garden soil, a bucket of humus, 2 tablespoons of wood ash.
- Stick a stick about two meters long in the middle of the bag.
- Pull a wire or string around the bag for future tying.
- Plant the seeds according to the instructions above.
Subsequently, as the plants grow, it will be necessary to pour the soil into the bags.
Care for cucumbers after planting in open ground
In general, planting seeds and caring for plants is not difficult, but you need to perform all stages of the event with high quality and correctly, each of which is especially important. If you take care of the vegetable crop in the garden in a timely and full-fledged manner, you can get the maximum yield.
The main points and rules for caring for cucumbers after planting in open ground or a greenhouse:
- For germination, cucumber seeds need high humidity and heat, so be sure to after sowing, cover the bed with foil or agrofibre... The best option is to put the arcs and pull the sponbond over it. The greenhouse needs to be ventilated daily.
A little trick! Instead of a greenhouse, you can cover the seed holes with ordinary 1.5-liter plastic bottles. To do this, you need to cut off the bottom and put the bottle upside down on the garden bed without opening the lid.
How to plant tulips in the spring?
If the planting of tulips is planned for the spring, then they approach the matter with caution, observing all the rules and thoroughly preparing the soil and bulbs.
Preparing the bulbs
Preparing tulip bulbs for spring planting is a must. If you don't pay enough attention to the process, only weakened leaves will sprout, and the plant is unlikely to bloom this year.
A gardener who has purchased bulbs in winter chooses the best way to store them:
- Option one. The habitat of tulips in the house is brought closer to the cool, so that they feel comfortable, as if they are in winter soil. In this case, the bulbs sprout quickly after planting and bloom profusely, but a little later than the due date. A place on the balcony is suitable for this.
Leaving tulips in a warm house is an unsuitable and even harmful option, as the bulbs may germinate prematurely and will have to be disposed of.
- Option two. The refrigerator is also used as a place for storing the bulbs, but in no case is the freezer or the shelf under it. Ideal for storing vegetables.
The bulbs are pre-sprinkled with sawdust to remove excess moisture. If there is no sawdust at hand, plain paper will do. In this position, tulips should lie for at least five weeks, after which they are planted in open ground, but when the weather has improved, and frosts are no longer predicted.
- Option three. If the home conditions nevertheless turned out to be too warm, and the bulbs began to germinate, they are urgently transplanted into pots, since they will not last until the spring planting. In this case, tulips grow much faster and even bloom ahead of time. And when the time is right, they are simply transplanted into the ground.
- Optionfourth. Tulip bulbs can be stored outdoors in winter. For example, plant in deep boxes with loose soil. Then sprinkle the seedlings with sawdust (small branches are also suitable) and take them outside. You will need to monitor the air temperature, because if the frosts are severe, the box with tulips will need to be additionally insulated.
When it comes time to plant the plants, they are immersed in the soil right in the boxes, since with this technology the root system of flowers remains intact. Among other things, with a similar planting scheme, tulips bloom this spring.
If the bulbs come from their own garden, they also need preparation:
- Step one. The newly dug material is peeled off and a thorough inspection is carried out, because sometimes the bulbs are deformed or begin to rot. In addition, the peeled onion absorbs useful elements from the ground faster.
- Step two. After cleaning, the tulips are dipped in a disinfectant and then in a degreasing solution. Potassium permanganate is suitable for this. This procedure removes all bacteria and fungi.
- Step three. Tulips are sent to winter in a cool place.
Site selection and preparation
Before preparing the soil for planting, you need to find a suitable place for future flowers. Tulips love the sun and warmth, so it is better to plant them on the south or southeast side of the house or any other building on the site.
Plants bloom very poorly in the shade. The buds are small, and the color of the petals is faded. Therefore, even the slightest shadow from the trees can cause a similar problem.
Once the site is selected, the ground is prepared. Tulips grow only in loose soil, therefore, before planting, they carefully dig it up and break large pieces of earth. After that, the beds are formed, and sand is added to them. This is important, since it acts as a drainage - it does not allow excess moisture to accumulate in the hole. Among other things, the sand prevents the soil from churning into pieces.
Also, the soil is sprinkled with nitrogen fertilizers before planting tulips. However, fresh manure is excluded from the list as it damages plants. It is better to add compost to the beds.
A large amount of fertilization is prohibited - it harms the bulbs. Wait for the plants to take root, begin to sprout, and only then feed with the necessary additives.
Rules for planting bulbs in a pot
Before planting tulips in pots, a choice is made whether they will later be planted in the ground or will remain growing in the form of decorative flowers on the windowsills. If the plants are for distillation, then any pots are purchased. But for the second case, special containers will be required - ceramic, low and rather wide (for better air circulation). It is better to refuse plastic pots, since the material negatively affects the development of the root flower system.
The potting scheme has a few simple steps:
- Step 1. Pour small stones or pebbles at the bottom of the pot. The layer should not exceed 5 cm.
- Step 2. Prepare a special substrate consisting of leaves, soil and humus. All ingredients are taken in equal proportions. If it is not possible to make a substrate at home, a ready-made one is purchased in the store. A slightly alkaline composition is suitable for tulips.
- Step 3. Pour the substrate mixture into the pot, leaving approximately 13 cm empty.
- Step 4. Place the bulbs in the ground with the pointed end up. The distance between the seeds is about 10 cm, no less.
- Step 5. Cover with soil. Leave about 3 cm to the edge of the container.
- Step 6. Place the tulip pots in a warm place. A balcony or window sill on the south side will do.
Features of planting bulbs in the ground
Tulips are planted in the spring according to the same scheme as in the fall. However, the gardener will have to tinker, as there are several nuances. The first and main one is to plant the bulbs as close as possible to the surface of the earth, but taking into account that during further wintering the flowers do not die.
Next, you need to prepare holes or furrows (as you like) and immerse the bulbs in the ground. If they are large, the distance between them is 15 cm. Small ones are planted a little closer, approximately 8-10 cm from each other.
Tulips are disinfected before planting. To do this, the bulbs are immersed in potassium permanganate or an antifungal agent for half an hour in order to avoid further diseases.
The process of planting tulips in open ground is as follows:
- Step 1. Prepare a nutrient mixture for better growth and rapid reproduction of plants. You will need 1 kg of ash and 200 g of slaked lime. Mix the ingredients well.
- Step 2. Pour a handful of the resulting mixture into the hole or furrow under each onion.
- Step 3. Place tulip bulbs vertically, without pressing into the ground, with the sharp end up. Gently sprinkle with earth and level with a rake.
- Step 4. Sprinkle the finished flower bed with sand. Layer thickness - 1 cm.
- Step 5. Thoroughly water the flowerbed from a watering can, avoiding stagnant water.
The first shoots will appear in about a month. And starting from this moment, before each watering, mineral fertilizers are regularly scattered in the beds in a proportion of 1 tablespoon per 1 square meter. m. After the procedure, the earth is slightly loosened.
Proper storage of bulbs and soil preparation, as well as successful planting are not all. In order for plants to please with lush flowering for more than one year, they need special care:
- Correct watering. Water should be in moderation. There is no need to breed a swamp in the garden bed, especially when the weather is damp. The soil should only be slightly moistened.
The frequency of watering depends on the region and weather conditions. If the weather is dry, it is enough to water the plants every two days, preferably in the morning. If the climatic conditions are more severe - a little less often, about once every four to five days.
When watering, try not to fall on the leaves, if they have already appeared. Water negatively affects the health of the flower - the leaves become dry.
- Tulips planted in spring require regular feeding in the form of nitrogen fertilizers. The mixtures promote rapid growth, and the phosphorus and potassium contained in the composition have a beneficial effect on the buds. Plants need to be flavored not only after germination, but also during flowering.
Fertilizers are introduced in liquid form, thoroughly dissolved in water. And it is best to perform the procedure in cloudy or rainy weather. Minerals mix with the liquid and quickly flow to the root system.
- The soil in the flowerbed should be loose, so the beds are weeded regularly. Take care of the process so as not to damage the roots and stems. Also, weeds should not be allowed to contaminate the area.
As soon as the tulips bloom, the buds need to be inspected. If damaged petals are seen, they are removed from the bush to avoid spreading the infection throughout the site.
After flowering has stopped, you should not cut the stems, as this will harm the bulbs. Wait until they turn yellow to remove them. But, despite the fact that the flowering is over, watering must be continued for two weeks. And after the expiration of the period, you should not worry about moisture - it will be enough.
Varieties and sowing dates
There are a lot of varieties of cabbage. But not all varieties can be grown in all regions. Cultivars that grow well in the south will not yield in colder climates.
When choosing varieties of this wonderful vegetable, you need to understand for what purposes you want to grow it. For fresh consumption, in the preparation of dishes, varieties and hybrids of early and medium ripening are used. For salting and long-term storage, medium-late and late varieties are needed.
Consider the most popular varieties of cabbage.
|June - any region of Russia is suitable for cultivation. Requires a lot of light, does not tolerate excess moisture.|
|Cossack F1 - early ripening hybrid. Does not require too sunny areas. The leaves are very tender for fresh consumption.|
|Revenge Is a great hybrid. A very productive variety. After 3 months from planting, it can be eaten.|
|Glory 1305 - old variety, but remains loved for its taste, ease of watering and cold resistance.|
|Symphony - popular in the agro-industry. Demanding on light and watering.|
|Present - a very old but reliable variety. Excellent taste, long shelf life, not capricious with regard to soil.|
|Atria F1 - great taste, high yield, disease resistant.|
|Aggressor - stored for a long time, excellent yield. Not capricious to growing conditions.|
Cabbage is a fairly cold-resistant crop. Seedlings can survive a temperature drop of up to -5 degrees. In the southern regions, sowing cabbage in open ground begins from the end of March. Seedlings can be planted from the first half of April.
Important! Late-ripening varieties do not tolerate spring frosts well, therefore they are grown only through seedlings.
How to grow white cabbage, what rules of agricultural technology need to be taken into account, we will tell you below.
Landing time: favorable days
If you sow a vegetable on favorable days for Peking cabbage, it will be strong, healthy and will delight you with a bountiful harvest. In this case, the definition of dates depends on various factors. It is correct to sow Peking cabbage, focusing on the lunar calendar.
Moon landing dates: table
Chinese cabbage will begin to bear fruit early if you sow seeds for seedlings. And planting directly in open ground at the end of April will allow the vegetation to be used as a compactor. A crop can yield twice a season.
Auspicious days for Chinese cabbage are:
If the seeds are planted outdoors in July, the harvest can be done at the end of September.
Sowing dates by region
Sowing times for seedlings in the Leningrad region and in the southern regions will differ. Despite the fact that the "Peking" prefers coolness in the phase of active vegetation (+ 12 ... + 14 ° С), it is better to lower the seed into a well-heated soil. The same situation is with seedlings - if you plant them in unheated soil, the roots will begin to freeze, which will cause the death of the culture.
It is possible to plant Chinese cabbage immediately on the garden bed only in areas with a warm climate: in the Volga region, Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region. In other regions - only sow seeds for seedlings at home or in a greenhouse.
In Siberia and the Urals, seed is planted in March-April. Within 40-50 days after the emergence of seedlings, the plants can be transplanted to the garden bed.
When the time for transplanting has come, but the soil has not yet warmed up enough, you can plant seedlings under film or glass. Alternatively, use deep pots or drawers.
In the suburbs and the central strip of the country, you can sow seeds from April 15. If the spring is very warm, you can try to sow one package of seed immediately on a bed covered with a film.
In the southern regions, it is considered the norm to immediately plant seeds in the garden, from April to July. This means that in just one season, you can harvest the "Peking" twice.
Influence of the variety on planting time
The ripening time is influenced by the quality of the selected variety:
- Early varieties can be planted immediately in the garden, since their growing season lasts 60-70 days. This type of vegetable is good in salads and for fresh consumption.
- Mid-ripening ripens in 80-100 days. This is ideal for conservation.
- Late - ripening period is up to 110 days. These varieties are also suitable for long-term storage.
The longer the Chinese cabbage ripens, the earlier it should be sown for seedlings.
Late varieties should be grown only in seedlings, even in the southern regions, otherwise the culture simply will not have time to ripen.
Selecting the sowing date based on the growing method (at home, greenhouse, open ground)
The day of planting the seeds depends on the plans for where the "Peking" will be grown. When sowing directly to the garden, the culture is adversely affected by sudden changes in temperature and night frosts. This leads to the completion of the development of the fork and the formation of seed arrows. In this case, the time for sowing should be chosen so that the vegetable is not damaged at the stage of development.
You can slightly smooth out temperature jumps when planting in a greenhouse. Thanks to the covering material, the time for planting seeds in the soil is brought closer. Depending on the type of structure and its strength, seedlings can be planted 1-2 weeks ahead of schedule. If the greenhouse is heated, it will be possible to harvest two or even three crops in a season. Growing seedlings begins 45-60 days earlier from the planned sowing of seed in the garden.
When and how to sow seeds
Warm weather in Siberia is established not earlier than mid-May. Relatively warm weather lasts no more than three months, and during this period the temperature can often drop below 20 ° C during the day and below 15 ° C at night. And pepper actively grows at temperatures above 22 ° C, with fluctuations and decreases, growth stops, and the time of fruiting is postponed.
For this region, pepper can only be grown by seedlings. You need to plant seeds long before planting in the garden. With the seedling method, the growing season of peppers can be divided into the following conditional periods:
- from sowing seeds to planting seedlings - 60-70 days
- from planting to the garden to the first ovary - 30 days
- from the beginning of the mass ovary to harvest - 30-40 days.
It is important to focus on these features when sowing seeds. You should not rush to sow pepper seeds, because until the soil warms up to 16-18 ° C, seedlings cannot be planted in the ground. This can significantly weaken and sometimes destroy the plants. And the overgrown seedlings at home are very difficult to take root in a new place and painfully endure a transplant.
The optimal time to plant peppers for seedlings in Siberia will be early-mid-March, if planting in unheated greenhouses is planned. But if it is planned to grow bell peppers in the open field, then we sow the seeds in the 20th of March. It is advisable to sow pepper in February only if it will grow in a heated greenhouse.