The subtleties and nuances of planting lilies and caring for them: a complete overview of growing technology
Lily is an amazingly beautiful flower with a pleasant aroma that has been revered in many cultures. The Greeks attributed her divine origin, believing that the lily grew from the milk of Juno - the mother of the gods. And when literally translated from Greek, li-li sounds like white-white. The Romans revered her as the main flower at festivals celebrating the goddess of spring Flora. Christians and Jews adorn their sacred altars with it, considering the lily a symbol of purity. This flower can be found on the coats of arms of noble families of different countries. Today, lilies adorn many parks and suburban areas, acting as a bright accent in any flower garden. One of the prerequisites for the lush flowering of these marvelous plants is the correct planting of lilies and their care.
The main groups and popular varieties of lilies
According to the international classification, these flowering perennial bulbous plants are divided into 9 groups:
- Asian - include 5 thousand varieties. They are characterized by unpretentiousness and winter hardiness, flowers do not smell.
- Curly - there are 200 varieties. It got its name from the inflorescences that resemble a candlestick with drooping heads.
- Snow white - include 30 varieties. They have a wonderful aroma, they can have a pale yellow color. They are very moody.
- American - there are 140 varieties. The flowers are very original in bright exotic colors, often decorated with two-tone black specks. Quite finicky.
- Longiflorum - have an elongated bud shape with a direction to the side or downward, Extraordinarily fragrant. In garden conditions, they often suffer from viral diseases, they are mostly grown as greenhouse crops.
- Tubular - have a characteristic flower shape, reminiscent of an elongated gramophone, collected from dense wax petals. Capricious, in need of shelter for the winter.
- Oriental (oriental) - a large group of 1300 varieties. They are capricious, demanding for warmth, often affected by diseases.
- Interspecific hybrids - combine the best qualities of individual groups. Extremely beautiful and exotic. Among the varieties obtained as a result of crossing, the most popular are LA hybrids, OT hybrids and LO hybrids with large flowers up to 25 cm in diameter for forcing.
- Natural species - play a key role in the creation of new varieties.
Under natural conditions, these herbaceous plants are ubiquitous in the temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere: in the Mediterranean, southeastern Central America, Japan, and China. Asian lily hybrids are most widespread in mid-latitudes.
Lilies are one of the most beautiful representatives of the bulbous genus. They belong to the daylily family and are relatives of onions, hazel grouses, tulips.
Asians come from natural species of Siberian lilies, such as Daurskaya and Tigrovaya, and therefore the most winter-hardy and adapted to not so favorable climatic conditions. Other groups of lilies, such as oriental, tubular or curly lilies, require more careful maintenance.
Among Asian hybrids, varieties are distinguished by the greatest decorativeness:
- Marlene - petals of a delicate pink hue. It is famous for its abundant flowering.
- Landini is a spectacular maroon beauty over a meter high.
- Aphrodite is a double flower with pink petals.
Of the old and time-tested varieties, it is also worth highlighting: Inchantment with flowers of a rich red-orange hue, Destin with delicate lemon-yellow petals, Peprike with bright red flowers.
Worthy representatives of the Oriental group can be considered: Mona Liza with graceful pale pink flowers, Tiber with lilac flowers framed with a white border, snow-white beauty Siberia
The choice of planting material
When choosing planting material, it is important to take into account the climatic features of the area, since not all lilies are able to painlessly tolerate temperature fluctuations.
When purchasing planting material, carefully examine the bulb: there are no spots and traces of rot on it. These signs indicate the defeat of the plant by diseases. The bulb should be evenly colored, the scales should adhere tightly to each other.
Marking will help to determine the varietal affiliation of the plant:
- The first Roman numeral denotes a lily group;
- The second number indicates the position of the flower (a - directed up, b - to the side, c - down);
- The letter through the fraction denotes the shape of the flower (a - tubular, b - cupped, c - flat, d - turban).
It is best to store the bulbs in a cool place until planting, sprinkling with sand, sawdust or damp moss. Some adapt the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for this purpose.
For spring planting, choose bulbs on which sprouts have already hatched and short white roots have begun to grow
In the case when the bulb begins to germinate ahead of time, it is advisable to plant it in a flower pot, leaving it in a warm room. It is worth replanting into open ground after frost.
Choosing a seat for landing
When planning where to place an exotic beauty on a site, you should focus on her group affiliation. Tubular, Asian and Eastern lines show the greatest decorative effect only in well-lit areas.
They feel comfortable in the partial shade of lilies, which have adventitious roots on the underground part of the stem. These include varieties of the group of curly lilies. It is advisable to place them so that the root part is shaded, and the inflorescence is illuminated by the sun's rays.
Lily is a heat-loving plant that prefers well-lit areas, reliably covered with a screen of green foliage from gusts of wind
Lilies with large flowers look spectacular in solo performance. When planting small-flowered lilies, in order to obtain an expressive aesthetic effect, it is better to form small groups, placing them at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other. Against the background of the lush foliage of other perennials, bright graceful flowers will stand out favorably, creating a magnificent picture.
Sites located on a small hill are ideal for planting flowers. This prevents stagnation of rainwater, which often causes damage to plants by pathogens. Swampy soils are destructive for fastidious beauties. It is possible to improve the conditions on clay and heavy loamy soils by arranging drainage. For this, ditches are laid, placing them at a slight slope. The bottom of the ditches is lined with a layer of crushed brick or fine gravel, sprinkled with river sand on top and covered with earth.
So that the soil near the root area of the flower is in the shade and does not overheat under the sun's rays, it is better to plant daylilies, bells and hosts in the immediate vicinity. Their spreading foliage will cover the surface of the earth, creating optimal conditions for the development of fastidious beauties.
Correct soil preparation
Correct soil is 80% of success in growing lilies. Regardless of the group belonging to the bulbous, they all prefer to grow on rich soils.
On enriched and well-drained peat soils, varieties of the American group and oriental hybrids thrive.
Humus is considered the best fertilizer for lilies. But it should be brought in with caution: with an excess of nutrition, the plants begin to fatten. This provokes their slowdown in development, a decrease in disease resistance and a decrease in frost resistance. The optimal ratio of the introduced humus is 7-8 kg per 1 sq. M.
The introduction of poorly decomposed manure containing pathogenic microflora with pathogenic plants can adversely affect plants.
The soil under these flowering herbaceous plants should contain a sufficient amount of nutrients, because a plant can live in one place from 3 to 5 years. When digging the soil, it is filled with mineral fertilizers, which include nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. They are brought in at the rate of 100 grams per square meter.
Since the roots of plants go quite deep, they dig up the soil before planting, deepening 30-40 cm.To drain heavy clay soil, sand is added to its composition
Most members of the daylily family do not tolerate acidic soils, preferring slightly alkaline and slightly acidic soil compositions. On acidic well-drained soil, only varieties of the eastern group feel comfortable. Asians and LA hybrids are more fond of neutral and humous soils, and tubular lilies show the greatest decorative effect on poor, slightly alkaline soil with admixtures of ash and sand.
Help reduce the acidity of the soil:
- Wood ash - it is brought in at the rate of 150-200 gr per 1 sq. M;
- Chalk - during digging, 300-500 gr. Per square meter.
Planting material processing
The bulbs are examined before planting, discarding diseased specimens: they remove damaged tissues, cut off rotten scales and dead roots.
The examined material is washed under pressure for 20-30 minutes. Then, in order to prevent the development of fungal diseases, they are first kept in a solution of potassium permanganate prepared in a proportion of 5 g per 10 liters of water, and then in a solution of the drug foundation. If necessary, they can be etched in an insecticidal solution based on chlorophos and 1% phosphamide.
The root system of these plants dries quickly enough. Therefore, after soaking, there is no need to dry them.
Choosing the planting time
The optimal planting time is after the plants have faded. This is the period from late summer to mid-autumn. If the bulbs are purchased in early spring, planting can be done as soon as the soil thaws and dries up. Late spring planting is risky in that young shoots can be damaged.
Spring planting is also more suitable for late-flowering varieties, the bulbs of which are slowly formed. These include LO hybrids and varieties of the eastern group: Rio Negro, White Haven, Rialto, Marco Polo.
When planting plants, you should be guided by the rule that large bulbs with a diameter of 8-12 cm are planted to a depth of 25 cm, and small ones - to a depth three times the size of the bulb itself
The only exceptions are Chalntcedony, Snow White and Testaceum. They form a root rosette of leaves, and therefore the soil layer above them should not exceed 2-3 cm.
When planting bulbs in heavy soil types, the bottom of the planting pits is covered with a 5 cm layer of sand. To protect them from voles, wire mesh is laid along the inner walls of the planting pit.
The onion is laid out on the bottom of the pit, placed on an impromptu sand cushion, and the roots are straightened. They cannot be wrung and bent upwards. The landing site is marked with a peg and sprinkled with earth, lightly tamping. The well is poured abundantly with settled water and covered with bark mulch.
Lilies are very sensitive to root drying. To prevent the bulbs from weathering while the hole is being prepared, it is better to wrap them in a wet napkin or hide them in a box with wet peat. Tender young sprouts are afraid of temperature extremes
To protect young shoots, the planted bulbs are covered with plastic bottles with cut-out bottoms. For this purpose, it is better to use bottles with wide walls with a volume of 2-3 liters.
Subtleties in the care of an exotic beauty
How to care for lilies? To minimize the care of these flowering plants, a number of recommendations must be followed:
- During the season, feed the plants with complex fertilizers and ash at the rate of 50 grams per square meter. Top dressing is carried out in three stages: in early spring, at the stage of bud formation and after flowering. Suitable for spring root feeding: ammonium nitrate (40 g per 10 l), nitroammophosphate (50 g per 10 l), a solution of fermented mullein in a ratio of 1:10.
- Provide timely watering. Although the lily does not like excessive moisture, especially dry days need frequent watering. You need to water at the root, trying not to moisten the leaves. Accidentally falling water droplets can act as a kind of lens, causing sunburn.
- Mulching the soil. Very harmful to bulbous plants and soil overheating, which disrupts the course of biological processes. This can be prevented by mulching the soil with natural materials of light shades (cut grass, straw, sawdust).
- Pest control. The lily beetle and lily fly are dangerous for the aboveground part of plants. You can get rid of pests by collecting the larvae by hand and spraying the stems with preparations such as Thunder, Grizzly, Mukhoed.
- Garter stalks. Tall varieties with thin stems must be tied to supports, thereby preventing them from breaking off and lodging.
- So that wilted inflorescences after flowering do not spoil the picture, they should be removed in a timely manner. The peduncles are removed at the end of the season.
- After the end of the growing season, the stems of the plants must be cut and burned so that in winter they do not serve as a conductor of cold to the bulb.
- For the winter, it is advisable to cover garden lilies with leafy soil, sawdust or spruce branches of conifers. Only Asian and LA hybrids do not need shelter.
Lilies are planted, separating the daughter bulbs, every three years, one and a half months after the end of flowering. By this period, they had built up mass and gained the greatest strength.
Lilies are planted, separating the daughter bulbs, every three years, one and a half months after the end of flowering. By this period, they had built up mass and gained the greatest strength.
Slowly growing varieties of Caucasian origin are best planted only after 5-6 years. Asian varieties can be replanted even in summer. The main thing is to dig up the plants with a garden pitchfork along with a lump of earth, while preserving the root system.
When transplanting, baby bulbs are carefully separated from the stem and planted in seedling beds for growing. Immediately after planting, they are sprinkled with compost or manure humus, forming a layer 3-4 cm thick. They will form full-fledged bulbs in the second or third year.
Daylily - lily for the lazy
No wonder the breeders called these unpretentious and disease-resistant perennials lilies for the lazy. And the statement that the more beautiful the flower, the more capricious it is, is not applicable to this plant. Daylily grows well in any garden soil, feeling comfortable both in the bright sun and in partial shade.
Their closest relatives, daylilies, are not inferior in beauty to garden lilies, but unlike fastidious beauties, they are very easy to care for.
Planting and caring for daylilies takes a minimum of time and effort. And the plant begins to delight with flowering already in the first year of planting. These perennials prefer neutral or slightly acidic soil. They are able to grow on depleted soils, but they show the greatest decorative effect on loose loams rich in organic matter. They are tolerant of infrequent watering, but, like lilies, do not tolerate stagnant water.
Perfectly combined with ornamental grasses and flowering annuals, they perfectly mask the slow disappearance of spring-flowering bulbs.
Daylilies can become a bright decoration of any flower garden. With the right selection of species with different flowering periods, the flowering of daylilies will not be difficult to stretch for the entire season.
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Lily flowers are very beautiful and showy. They have several large petals that bloom in the daytime and are shaped like an oriental bowl. The colors of bush lilies are especially pleasing to the eye: purple, tangerine red, white, deep pink.Unfortunately, lilies have no scent. And this is undoubtedly a plus if you want to plant them in the garden next to other flowers: asters, phlox, echinacea.
Shrub lilies prefer loose and nutritious soil that is slightly acidic or neutral. Plant them in an area that is well lit and warmed by the sun. In the absence of such a place, flowers can grow in the shade. However, do not plant the plant under large tree crowns: it will suffer from a lack of light. Pay close attention to the soil of flowers: do not allow a lot of weeds in it.
USEFUL PROPERTIES OF ROSE
There are several types of rose hips. But the most attractive of them is precisely for amateur gardeners - rose wrinkled.
This is both the most beautiful and the most useful (in terms of the content of vitamins and nutrients) rose hips.
Wrinkled rose is a spreading bush up to 2 m in height. Its leaves are very bright, dark green with a very beautiful texture. The flowers are large, bright pink, double with many petals and a lovely golden mean. They exude a delicate, pleasant aroma that attracts pollinating insects to the garden.
This rosehip blooms in whole clusters of inflorescences from mid-May to late September (in autumn these are single, rare flowers, and the fruits from them, alas, will not have time to ripen, but they look beautiful).
The fruits of a wrinkled rose are large, bright orange, round-flat, slightly flattened at the top and bottom. They begin to ripen at the end of September. In terms of the content of nutrients and vitamins, they are more than 6 times higher than all other types of rose hips.
Rosehip berries should be picked before the onset of the first autumn frosts, otherwise they will lose most of their beneficial properties.
The fruits of the wrinkled rose contain all the vitamins of group B, as well as vitamins A, C (50 times more than in black currant), D, E, K, P, beta-carotene trace elements - magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, selenium, iron, molybdenum useful substances - antioxidants, essential oils, lycopene, pectins, tannins, essential oils, citric, malic and other acids, flavonoids, sugars and dietary fiber.
Broths of rose hips increase hemoglobin, reduce the content of sugar, uric acid and bilirubin in the blood, and help normalize blood pressure. Rosehip berries (in any form) increase immunity and body resistance, are an excellent choleretic agent, contribute to the complete cleansing of the body of harmful toxins and toxins.
In the East, rose hips are equated with ginseng for their healing properties.
- Lilies feel just fine if their upper part is warmed up in the sun, and the "legs" are in the shade, that is, the bulbs do not overheat. Plant low or medium-sized plants near them, for example, daylilies, hosts, bells, flax. Thanks to this joint planting, you will shade the lower part of the lilies, which means that the soil will not overheat and dry out.
- When planting oriental lilies, try to prevent the bulbs from drying out.
- Remember that Asiatic lilies do not like adding lime to the soil and quite often require replanting - once every two years.
Lilies are quite unpretentious in their care. During the flowering period, they need moderate watering. In hot dry weather, when there is almost no moisture in the ground, they must be watered abundantly. After flowering, watering can be stopped altogether.
Lilies are quite unpretentious in care
When cutting lilies, be sure to leave a large enough portion of the leafy stem. This will help further the development of the bulb. And try to cut the cut obliquely so that rainwater can easily roll off without getting inside (excess moisture can cause rotting).
In autumn, it is better to cut the stems of lilies at a height of 8-18 cm from the ground. And just before wintering, it is useful to mulch the planting of lilies with peat.
For a successful wintering of lilies, they must be covered in time. Film, sawdust, dry leaves or spruce branches are the best for this. When covering plantings, make sure that the ground is completely dry. In spring, the shelter must be removed in time - preferably before the first sprouts appear.
The homeland of lilies is the mountainous regions of Asia, and in total there are over a hundred species of this plant in nature.
- deep yellow with red - 'Grand Cru'
- coffee, with scarlet tips - 'Lollypop'
- pink and white - 'Marlene', 'Ventoux', 'Marseille', 'Vermeer', 'Kentucky'
Terry Asian Lily 'Cocktail Twins'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko
- yellow - 'Kansas'
- yellow with red - 'Gitana'.
- raspberry white - 'Barbados'
- white with yellow - 'Time Out'
Oriental Lily 'Pink Mist'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko
- white with pink and yellow - 'Star Class'
- white with pink - 'Set Point'
- tricolor - 'Arena'.
- apricot - 'Bestseller'
- lemon - 'Aerobic'
- pink coffee - 'Royal Club'
LA hybrid 'Golden Tycoon'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko
- red - 'Royal Parade'
- apricot - 'Swing'.
More than 300 new varieties appear on the country's markets every year, the beauty of which can amaze anyone. The novelties are different not only in color of the flower, but also in shape and, of course, in name: bluish 'Blue Eyes', golden orange 'Ariosto', cherry 'Stargazer' - who can they leave indifferent?
Whom can they leave indifferent?
If we talk about hybrids in more detail, then they differ significantly from each other. For example, Dutch hybrids with a dense texture of inflorescences and petals are strong enough to be easily transported over any distance. “Asians” of the Russian selection are very fragile and airy, as evidenced by their romantic names: 'Night', 'Pink Haze', 'Virineya'.
You can talk about lilies endlessly. Every year the ranks of their admirers are replenished with new gardeners. For them, we have made a selection of interesting and useful materials about lilies:
- What do the mysterious ciphers in the names of lilies mean? Features of growing different hybrids
- In the kingdom of lilies: features of Asian, oriental and tubular hybrids
- 5 ways to breed lilies
Today, everyone can afford to plant lilies in their garden, even people with allergies. True, it is better for them to purchase odorless varieties: as a rule, there is a corresponding marking on the packaging of plants. And thanks to the unpretentiousness of the plants, growing lilies will not take much of your time.